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Pear-shaped domes are characteristic for Ukrainian Baroque, umbrella-like and conic for Transcaucasian architecture. Voronin) that "the fact that the onion shape of the domes was used in early Moscow Zions, censers, miniatures and carved icons from the XIII century (what A. Lidov also notes), gives evidence that this form was known, had a sacred significance, and therefore could, and even, perhaps, should have been used in architecture As a result, the assumption of I. Bondarenko about relatively early origin of the ancient onion domes was expressed in an equally controversial and unexamined form, as the similar position of B. To examine the genesis of the onion domes, we analyzed architectural iconographic sources ancient Russian icons, miniatures and plans.
In ancient Russian architecture and in the relevant iconography they were practically absent (see Chapter 2). Voronin received no resonance in the scientific world. Full coverage of iconography of temple architecture is impossible, but we sited enough representative sources (totally 147), allowing a statistical analysis.
Then, once in the XVI century hipped architecture appeared, the altitude of helmet domes proved insufficient, and onion-form structures started to be built on the cupolas B. Rybakov was the first to disagree with those stereotypes. The earliest surviving image of a medieval completion of Edicule is approximately dated by XIV century, and it is highly conditional and inaccurate image with general trend of "flattening" of the lower parts of the objects Secondly, the "dome" on Jerusalem Edicule is not a dome in the understanding of a decorative coating above the cupola (see Chapter 1).
Accordingly, in order to create a helmet design, it is necessary to arrange a wooden, metal or brick construction on the cupola vault.Cupolas or cupola coatings, arranged not on light, but on decorative (deaf) drums, are also called domes.We shall define the cupolas only as cupola vaults, and the domes as decorative cupola coatings, although in the context of our study this definition requires considerable refinement, associated with the understanding of the helmet domes.The main theme of our research is the genesis and the quantitative ratio of such types of domes as simple cupola coatings, helmet and onion. Perhaps the negative role was played by uncertainty of their conclusions, and also because in future their researches on genesis of the onion domes were not developed: apparently they considered their observations as local. Bondarenko suggested in the same article (unfortunately, without a reference to the similar position of B. Statistical illustrative material is contained in the Appendix.helmet domes prevailed in pre-Mongol Vladimir-Suzdal principality. Artsikhovsky that many miniatures of Radzivil Chronicle of XV century are the copies of the images of XII-XIII centuries, suggested that onion domes, portrayed on these miniatures (see Section 4 of the statistical illustrative material) appeared in the reality in the end of XIII century However, strangely enough, those observations by B. For example, onion domes could appear in the end of XIII century, but not everywhere and only in wooden architecture, and in the end of XVI century the construction of such domes on stone temples could begin. Bondarenko and just clarify: since ancient Russian onion domes are decorative coatings, based on wooden carcasses, then the situation is typical for the history of ancient wooden architecture: the lack of architectural and archaeological information about the onion domes before XVII century can not be the information about the absence of such domes in reality. In accordance with the collected statistics on ancient Russian icons, frescoes, miniatures and works of decorative art (hereinafter we shall collectively call them images) of XI-early XVII century (see Sections 1-7 of Appendix), the onion domes are shown in the following proportions relative to other dome types: , and iconography usually passed from century to century.